What is the halibut:

          There are different kinds of fish in the ocean. Among these, there is a group of flatfishes named due to their flat bodies while having both eyes on the upper head usually on the right side. One of them is halibut. Halibut is drived from “hally” ( holy) and “ butt “ (flat fish) and was often eaten on holy days in the Middle ages, among them flat fish was very popular and halibut is named by holy fish. Halibut (genes Hippoglossus)  is commonly named for the group of three major species of flatfish belonging to the right-eye flounder family. It includes Atlantic halibut, Pacific halibut, and Greenland halibut. These are mostly found on the seabed and are famous for food and sports. These have small invisible scales on the body. Initially, halibut has one eye on each side but after half of the year, the left eye moves to the right permanently due to larval changes.

Types of halibut:

1:         The  Atlantic halibut ( Hippoglossus hippoglossus) is the largest and most massive flatfish, found in the north Atlantic. it is found in deep water and may reach up to 4.7 meters 15 feet long and 320 kg 705 pounds weight.  It may be brown, blackish, and deep green on the eyed side while white on the other side. It is called a threatened specie due to overfishing and its slow growth rate.

 2:         The   Pacific halibut (Hippoglossus stenolepis) is found in the north Pacific. It may reach 2.5 meters nearly 8 feet in length and 230-250 kg nearly 500 pounds in weight. It is greenish brown and light cloured from the upper and underside respectively. these halibuts have elongated diamond-shaped bodies. It is mostly used for commercial fishing.

3:         The Greenland halibut ( Reinhardtius Hippoglossus) called Greenland turbot is found in Arctic parts of the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. it may be 1.3 meters long and weighs up to 6-7 kg. Is brownish black in colour and retains its colour on both sides. It is a predatory fish and caught on a large scale. These are mostly used in North America. one of its types is California halibut which has eyes on either side.

 Halibut as food:

           Halibut is an edible fish and being a good source of nutrients, people are using it as food for many years. It has been an important food for the people of Alaska, Canada, and North America. As it may be endangered species due to its overfishing. 

          It has all the essential contents required for normal body growth.100 g of its meat contains 80 % water and 19 % protein with a negligible amount of fats. Carbohydrates are absent in this. In 100 g of raw halibut, there is( 20% DV) protein, (65% DV)  phosphorus, vitamin D (32% DV), selenium (65% DV), and several B vitamins, etc. the protein content is even increased after cooking due to dehydration.

           It can be grilled, fried, boiled, or cooked. whenever it is cooked, it makes large fillets from both sides producing a large amount of meat. Due to less fat content, it is difficult to smoke. halibut is unique and well known for its dense meat and appetizing taste. pacific halibut is mostly used for eating purposes.

Health effects of halibut: 

       The most edible halibut is either from the Atlantic or Pacific, depending on their habitat. Atlantic halibut is mostly unavailable and is contaminated due to which Pacific halibut is widely preferred to eat. it is rich in proteins, selenium, omega-3 fatty acids, and minerals which have a large beneficiary health effect.

Protein:

Builds muscles and tissues

Improves skin and reduces hair loss.

Retain energy level

phosphorus:

strengthens the bones

Maintains heart conditions

Stables the blood pressure

Magnesium:

Protein formation

Muscle movements and energy creation

Vitamin B12:

An essential role in cells formation

Proper nervous system functioning

Vitamin B6:

Beneficial to the central nervous system

Boost brain function

Niacin:

Prevents heart diseases

Skin damages reduction

Selenium: 

Powerful anti-oxidant

Lowers inflammations

Lowers the body stress

Omega-3:

Reduces heart diseases

Improves blood flow by dilating the blood vessels

Negative aspects:

1) Health issues:

Atlantic halibut is avoided due to many reasons. But due to health reasons, Atlantic halibut may be unsafe for use as it contains toxic levels of mercury  and industrial chemicals like lead, chromium, arsenic, cadmium, etc,  due to which can be very harmful to use and intake of these chemicals causes;

Anxiety and depression.

Heart diseases

Difficulty in breathing

Vomiting

Bleeding gums

Stomach problems

Cancer and brain degeneration

Nervous system disorders

Kidney damage and abnormal mental conditions

2) limited stock:

Atlantic halibut has been depleted to an extent due to overfishing. due to which, a limited amount of halibut is found in stock. No fisheries are currently working in the Atlantic Ocean until the stock is rebuilt.so, most of the halibut is obtained from the pacific ocean which has rather more stock and is less contaminated.

3) Wasted bycatch:

 According to an investigation conducted by international fisheries services in 2014, a large amount of seafood is wasted called “bycatch” each year by commercial fisheries. 

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