What are skin lesions:

          Skin lesion is an abnormal growth of skin that makes it different from surrounding skin with respect to colour and texture. It may be patches, rashes, bumps, or may be smooth. They make abnormal changes compared to surrounding tissues.

         They are of many types of which some are harmless but some are cancerous. These lesions may be born with or acquired at any age of life span. They are of different shapes. Some are small but some may surround more area. They can be anywhere on the body. 

Types of skin lesions:

          Skin lesions are of different types. They vary in colour, texture, shape, etc. they are divided into two main categories on basis of their formation. which are primary skin lesions and secondary skin lesions.

             The major difference between primary and secondary lesions is their formation. Primary skin lesions are present on the skin since birth or acquired over the life span of a person. while secondary skin lesions are formed due to inflammation in primary lesions. It may be due to scratching, disturbing, irritating, or bleeding in primary lesions.

Malignant and benign skin lesions:

       Malignant skin lesions are basically called skin cancer. These are of two types, keratinocyte carcinoma arises from skin cells Keratinocytes and Melanoma arises from skin cells melanocytes. These lesions are cancerous and cause abnormal growth of lesions into severe form and don’t heal resulting in cancer.

     Benign skin lesions are non-cancerous, abnormal growth of tissues forming tumors on anywhere of skin but they are harmless.

Primary skin lesions:

Primary skin lesions may be flat, fluid-filled, or in solid masses.

 

Macule: Flat lesion macule flat is decoloration of skin without changing the texture of the skin. it is less than 1 cm in diameter.

Tumor: Tumor is a solid mass similar to a nodule but greater in size. it may be malignant or benign.

Papule: Solid lesion papule is a raised skin area of solid masses having distinct boundaries. It is less than 1 cm in diameter.

Nodule: Nodule is a solid elevated  bump in the skin having a diameter of more than 1 cm

Plaque: Plaque is a solid raised lesion of more than 1 cm diameter. it is flat-topped and rough.

Bullae: Bulla is a fluid-filled sac of more than 1 cm in diameter.

Vesicle: Vesicle is similar to bulla having clear fluid in it but smaller than 1 cm.

Pustule: Postule is a blister filled with pus

Patch: The patch is a flat lesion and changes the colour of the infected area.

Wheal: Wheal is a solid irregular area, red in colour due to insect biting, and lasts for short time.

  • Secondary skin lesions:

Secondary skin lesions are a severe form of primary skin lesions.

Scale: Growth of keratinized cells on one another which results in forms of little flakes that are removed. they may be small, bigger, dry, greasy, thick, or thin.

Crust: The crust is an elevated skin area having dried blood, pus, or serum and it can vary in size.

Atrophy: Atrophy is the condition of ultra-thin skin or may be called paper thin having wrinkles. It occurs due to excessive use of steroids.

Ulcer: It is the damage to the upper layer of the skin due to any outer contact or wound. It may extend to the inner layer and may be severe.

Lichenification: Thickening of the outer layer of the skin due to rubbing or rough scratching.

Excoriation: Nailing off the outer skin layer by scratching through fingers.

Erosion: It is the loss of the epidermis and the inner layer is exposed to air and moisture.

Scarring: It is the decoloration of outer skin because of scar tissues.

Fissure: The skin breaks in and forms dip in the skin that passes from the outer layer to the inner layer. It happens due to excessive dryness and may be painful.

  • Some important  skin lesions:

Acne:

       Acne is derivative of papules. it includes whiteheads, blackheads, and pimples. It makes the skin pores filled with serum and may be painful. It can lead to nodules and painful cysts if not treated and may leave scars on the skin. It happens on top upper parts of the body like the face, shoulders, neck, upper chest, and back.

Blisters:

      Blisters are fluid-filled elevations on the skin. It may be anywhere on the body. they are less than 0.5 cm in size and are soft enough to rupture with a little pressure. one should avoid popping the blister because secretions may cause infection to the skin. 

Chicken pox:

      Chickenpox is a viral infection. It makes red fluid-filled blisters all over the body that are itchy. it is contagious until it heals and all blisters are crusted over. .more over, it adds rash on the body followed by fever. It can be easily identified by its symptoms which include loss of appetite, pain, fever, sore throat, etc.

Warts:

      Wart is a rough bump on the skin caused by a virus called human papillomavirus HPV .it is contagious and may pass to others sometimes. They may be single or in groups. they are harmless but can be painful. They are of different types.

Rashes:

      A rash is a condition in which the texture and colour of the skin is changed mostly to red. it may be due to allergic reactions, bacterial or fungal infections, insect bites, or medication. some are harmless but some may need urgent treatment. It is followed by pain, fever, vomiting, etc.

Actinic keratosis:

       Actinic keratosis makes thick, scally crusts on the skin. It happens because of sun exposure due to which the naked parts of the body are affected by this. It can be removed by medication. It has more than 2 cm in diameter and is pink-brown in colour.

Cold sore:

     Cold sores are red, fluid-filled blisters near the mouth and lips. They contain yellowish fluid and are painful. Before appearing, one can feel a tingling. They are caused by the Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV). which may be HSV-1 or HSV-2. These viruses are responsible for oral lesions as well as genital lesions. They may be temporary or may be severe.

Eczema:

      An eczema is an adaptive form of dermatitis. It may be due to allergens and makes the skin itchy and red in the affected area. further, it can lead to blisters and crusts. It can be normally treated by keeping the skin moist, applying creams, and avoiding allergens.

Shingles:

       A shingle is a red rash caused by a virus. It can be severe and painful. It may further form fluid-filled blisters that can break and fluid is wept. It makes the skin burn, tingle, and itchy. 

Mole:

     Mole is round in shape, it may be black, brown, or pink. It can vary in size. it can appear anywhere at any age. It is harmless until it doesn’t change its shape.

  • How to treat the skin lesions:

The treatment of skin lesions depends upon these factors:

  • Type of skin lesion
  • Symptoms
  • Cause of skin lesion

On basis of these factors, skin lesions can be treated in three ways.

Medication:

      The basic treatment of skin lesions is medication. in this case, lesions are diagnosed and identified by their symptoms. The medication may be oral or for outer use like lotions, creams, soups, etc depending on the lesson. The basic medication includes relief against pain, itching, burning, or rashes. While oral medication is applied for viral and bacterial infections.

Surgery:

     Surgery plays a vital role in curing skin lesions. Some lesions need to be removed permanently.  Due to which affected part undergoes surgery. The affected part is mostly pierced and unnecessary growths are removed. Moles that change over time, are removed by surgery. Special types of birthmarks like Hemangioma and skin tags are also removed by surgery.

Home treatment:

      Most of skin lesions do not need medication. they can be treated at home just by taking care of them. Skin lesions cause itching, tingling, burning, or pain in the body due to which simple home remedies can play an important role.

  •   Proper care
  •   Ointments like creams, lotions, or soups
  •   Cleaning the skin
  •   Proper diet
  •   Avoiding sunburn and exposure to heat

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