Introduction:

                    Wheat is a cereal crop produced all over the world. wheat is one of the most ancient crops in the world. it is cultivated in temperate regions. Its cultivation started in the Neolithic period. Spring crop and Winter crop are well-known types. It is scientifically named “Triticum Aestivum”, and belongs to the family Poaceae. It has a di-cotyledon seed. wheat is being cultivated for more than 10,000 years. Basically, wheat is used as a staple food as it is processed to obtain many edible products for humans as well as animals. Wheat is also (cultivated as a cash crop. It has a slim slender stem 2-4 feet in length connecting roots to kernels called seeds covered in spikelets. Wheat is of many types which are Wild Emmer (T.Dicoccum),  common bread wheat (T.Vulgare), Spelt, Einkorn, Durum wheat (T.Durum), and Club wheat (T.compactum), etc.

Wheat Production:

                   Around millions of tons of wheat are produced across the world annually. China, India, and Russia (134,107 and 86 million tons, respectively) are the most wheat-producing countries and about 41 % (333 million tons) of total wheat comes from these countries. Annually, wheat comprises about 542,000,000 acres of area for cultivation. Approximately,778 million tonnes of wheat production have been recorded in the last 2 years, and it is the 2nd most producing crop in the world after maize. Mostly, wheat is used as a staple food but a lot of food items are obtained after milling it.

Wheat Nutrition:

                  Wheat is one of the most nutritious crops as it is being used as the most common staple food from the origin of the world. It contains all essential nutrients required for a healthy life.100g of wheat provides us with 1368 kilojoules of energy. It contains carbohydrates, protein, vitamins, and other essential minerals.In 100g of wheat, It has a balanced amount of carbohydrates, protein, fats, vitamins, and minerals. including this,100g of wheat also consists of water as well as a suitable amount of dietary fiber.

Components:     Content:  

carbohydrates       70g

protein                  13g

fat                         1-2g

water                    11g

dietary fiber          1-2g

minerals               1-2g 

                   The negative aspect is that 13g of the protein content in 100g of wheat is mostly glutin. Glutin may be an undigestable protein in some cases depending on the immune system of someone’s body. wheat protein content contains 75-80% glutin which can cause problems in the stomach and may be allergic in the small intestine, further can lead to celiac disease in some cases.

Wheat Uses:

                   Wheat is known as a cereal grain and has a variety of uses. As wheat is used as a staple food due to which a lot of food items are made from this. Wheat is one of the major sources of energy for our body.  Wheat supplies us with all essential components and nutrients that our body requires for normal functioning and has good health effects on the body like body growth and a healthy brain. Basically, wheat is milled flour that can be used as food directly or indirectly. flour is basically used to make bread. Besides this, a lot of food items are obtained from this like crumpets, muffins, pasta, pizza,  noodles, cereals, cakes, yummy puddings, and biscuits, etc. along this, a large number of bakery products like sweet and savory snacks, crackers, crisps-breads, and pastries. We can get most of the sauces and confectionery from wheat. 

                  On the industrial level, wheat is also used as raw material for making various items. which includes wheat bran (used to increase dietary fiber content), wheat germ (added to bakery products ), semolina (used for making pasta) and couscous, etc. In addition to this, wheat is also used to make starch and liquor products (beer, vodka, alcohol, and boza). Most of the breakfast cereals are made from wheat flour. 

                 On another side, wheat also plays an important role in the growth of animals. Wheat supplies the animals with fooder. After obtaining grains from the wheat crop, the residue is used directly as a fooder for animals or milled with other contents to fulfill the food requirements for animals on an industry level. The wheat crop also plays an important role in the poultry industry to meet the feeding requirements. The wheat residue is the best source of starch.

Importance and Economic Aspects:

                 Talking about health issues,  no doubt, wheat is one of the major sources of starch and energy. it contains all the essential nutrients required for the body. Wheat always plays a healthy and beneficial role in our body’s growth and its normal functioning. Wheat fulfills all the food requirements of humans as well as animals and provides us a variety of food items and cereals that are rich in components and energy and maintain our physical and mental fitness. Wheat has a balanced amount of carbohydrates, protein content, vitamins, phytochemicals, and dietary fiber due to which wheat has a very reduced risk of causing health issues. Along this, the cereals full of dietary fiber which are obtained from wheat prevent our body from cardiovascular disease and provide us with better brain functioning. 

                Meeting the food requirements, wheat is the second most cultivated food crop all over the world. In recent times, about 778 million tons of wheat grain are being produced to fulfill the food requirement of the population. As the population is increasing day by day, food consumption is increasing at a high rate, and to meet this food demand, wheat yield is also to be increased. About 80-90 kg of wheat is per person consumption in the American region and this per person consumption is double in the sub-continent. As estimated, the wheat requirement would double in the next ten years. Wheat provides not just flour for bread, it is a unit from which a variety of products are obtained like cereals, bakery products, snacks, brewery, fast food items, sauces, muffins, doughnuts, confectionery, and pizzas, etc. This wheat also supplies food to livestock on a high level. This demand and supply rule in wheat production plays a significant role.

            Urbanization and global warming are the major threat to wheat production. As people are moving to urban areas to improve their lifestyles to which urbanization is increasing at an alarming rate causing a reduction in fertile land available for wheat crop cultivation. Due to this, wheat yield is reducing every year as compared to food requirements. The other major threat to annual wheat yield is global warming. As urbanization and demand for a better lifestyle have caused rapid growth in industries that provide us with luxury as well as pollution. polluted air having a high amount of carbon dioxide causes global warming and industrial wastes are drained to fertile land available for crops which results in damaging the fertility of soil and reduction in crop yield. So, it is now a big challenge to make high wheat yields to meet population criteria.

               The economic importance of wheat is a very significant aspect of wheat production. as India, China, and Russia are the major producers of wheat, and wheat is exported all over the world from these countries and wheat plays an important role in improving the economic value of a country. Wheat is definitely a temperate zone crop due to which a lot of countries have to import this to meet their requirements. In this way, wheat is one of the most traded crops. due to its economic value, it is also called a cash crop. 

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